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Urogenital surgery may be necessary for a number of conditions, as detailed below. Depending on the procedure, surgery may be undertaken using local or general anaesthesia and a variety of surgical techniques. Patients can be admitted to the hospital for elective and emergency surgery relating to the urinary tract, such as removal of cystic calculi and repair of ruptured bladders in foals.

Cystic calculus removal in geldings is facilitated by a laparoscopic approach to the bladder under general anaesthesia. This allows the calculus to be removed by a much smaller incision in the abdomen, thus reducing post-operative complications.

Tumours of the penis may respond to conservative laser surgery or in more advanced cases they can be managed by penile amputation, with excellent results.

Indications for urogenital surgery include:


  • Castration

  • Cryptorchid surgery (removal of retained testicle)

  • Amputation of the penis

  • Removal of penile or testicular tumours

  • Removal of bladder or urethral calculi (stones)


  • Caesarean section

  • Caslick's operation (vulvoplasty – surgery to correct the angle of the vulva)

  • Pouret's operation (perineal reconstruction)

  • Ovariectomy

  • Removal of granulosa cell tumours

  • Repair of uterine and rectal tears and perineal lacerations or rectovaginal fistulas

  • Correction of vaginal urine pooling

  • Removal of bladder calculi (stones)